Mina Anna Mazzini OMRI (born Anna Maria Mazzini 25 March 1940), known as Mina, is an Italian pop singer. For the great extension and agility of her soprano voice and her image as an emancipated lady, she was a staple of the Italian television variety shows and a dominant figure on the Italian charts in the 1960s and 1970s. During the performances, Mina combined several modern styles with the traditional Italian melody making her the most versatile pop singer in Italian music. She dominated the Italian charts for a decade, and reached an unsurpassed level of popularity in Italy. She has recorded over 1000 songs, 110 albums, sold 76 million records, and scored 70 singles in Italian charts. She gave up public appearances in 1978, but continued to release popular albums on a yearly basis to date.
Mina's TV appearances in 1959 presented the first female rock and roll singer in Italy. Her loud syncopated singing earned her the nickname Queen of Screamers. For her wild gestures and body shakes, the publicity labeled her the Tiger of Cremona. Having turned to light pop tunes, Mina's chart-toppers in West Germany and Japan in 1962?1964 earned her the titles of best international artist in the respective countries. Mina's more refined sensual manner was introduced in 1960 with Gino Paoli's ballad "Il cielo in una stanza", which charted in the Billboard Hot 100.
Mina's pregnancy and relationship with a married actor caused her to be banned from the Italian TV and radio channels in 1963 as her lifestyle did not accord with the dominant Catholic and bourgeois morals. After the ban, the Italian broadcasting service RAI continued trying to prohibit her songs which were forthright in dealing with subjects such as religion, smoking, or sex (e.g. the songs "Ta-ra-ta-ta" and "Sacumd? Sacumd?"). To her bad girl image, Mina added a sexy appeal and a cool act featuring public smoking, dyed blond hair, and shaved eyebrows.
Mina's voice has distinctive timbre and great power. Her main theme are anguished love stories performed in high dramatic tones ("Un bacio ? troppo poco", 1965, "Portati via", 2005). The singer combined classic Italian pop with features of blues, R&B and soul music in the late 1960s e.g. the songs "Se stasera sono qui" (1968), "Deborah" (1968), and collaborations with the composer Lucio Battisti in 1969?1970. Top Italian songwriters created material with large vocal range and unusual chord progression to showcase her singing skills, particularly "Brava" by Bruno Canfora(1965) and the pseudo-serial "Se telefonando" by Ennio Morricone (1966). The latter song was covered by several performers abroad. Her ballad "Grande grande grande" was carried to the U.S., U.K., and Australian charts by Shirley Bassey in 1973. Mina's easy listening duet "Parole parole" was turned into a worldwide hit by Dalida and Alain Delon the same year.
Anna Maria Mazzini was born into a working class family in Busto Arsizio, Lombardy. Later, her family moved to work in Cremona where Mazzini grew up. Anna Maria Mazzini listened to American rock and roll and jazz records and was a frequent visitor at the Santa Tecla and the Taverna Messicana clubs of Milan, both known for promoting rock and roll. After finishing high school in 1958, she attended college where she majored in accounting.
Baby Gate (1958)
While on summer holiday in Versilia, on 8 August 1958 Mina gave an improvised performance to amuse her family during a concert at La Bussola, a night club in Marina di Pietrasanta with the song "Un'anima tra le mani". During the following nights, Sergio Bernardini, the owner of the club held back her attempts to get back to singing on stage.
In September, she started her solo career as she received the backing of the band Happy Boys. Her concert in September 1958, before an audience of 2,500 people at the Theatre of Rivarolo del Re, won enthusiastic approval from the local critics. Davide Matalon the owner of the small record company Italdisc was invited to listen to Mina at one of her regular performances at a club in the comune of Casteldidone. Her first single, "Non partir"/"Malattia", was produced under the stage name Mina for the Italian audience. Simultaneously, "Be Bop A Lula"/"When" was issued under the name Baby Gate for the international audience. Baby was chosen as a contrast to her 178 cm height (5 ft 10 in)?exceptionally tall for an Italian woman?and Gate as a tribute to The Golden Gate Quartet. In December, her performance at the Sei giorni della canzone festival of Milan was greeted by La Notte paper as the birth of a star. It remained Mina's last performance with the Happy Boys, as her family refused to let her skip college for a scheduled tour of Turkey.
Queen of Screamers (1959?1961)
"Nessuno" performed at the Lascia o raddoppia? TV pop quiz on 1 March 1959, one of Mina's first televised performances
Less than a month after the breakup with her previous backup band, Mina co-founded a new group called Solitari, consisting of vocals, saxophone, piano, contrabass, and guitar. As the first hit with the band, Mina took Betty Curtis's swing song "Nessuno" ("Nobody") and performed an extra-loud, syncopated version of it at the first rock festival in the Milan Ice Palace in February 1959. The 1 March and 4 April performances of the song on the Lascia o raddoppia? and Il musichiere TV pop quizzes were hailed by the Italian critics. The starlet signed with Elio Gigante, an experienced artist manager. In the following years, he organized her performances in the grand ballrooms in Italy. Her first Italian #1 hit followed with the surf pop "Tintarella di luna" ("Moon Tan"), which was performed in her first musicarello (musical comedy film) Juke box - Urli d'amore. In late 1959, Matalon dropped the name Baby Gate in favour of Mina.
Next year, Mina took part in the Festival della canzone italiana in Sanremo with two songs, turning to the slow emotional love songs for the first time. She became eighth with the song "? vero" ("It's True"). Gino Paoli's song "Il cielo in una stanza" ("The Sky in a Room") marked the young singer's eventual transformation from a rock and roll shrieker to a feminine inspiration for cantautori. The idea of the song: "Love can grow at any moment at any place," had come to Paoli, lying on the bed of a brothel and looking at the purple ceiling. The single topped the list of annual sales in Italy and reached Billboard Hot 100. Video performances of the song were included in the musicarellos Io bacio... tu baci and Appuntamento a Ischia.
"Il cielo in una stanza"
Sample from "Il cielo in una stanza".
"Piano", another slow song recorded in 1960, was later scored by Matt Monro as "Softly, as I Leave You" and reached #10 in the UK Top 40. In 1964, the song reached #27 of the Billboard Hot 100 in the version by Frank Sinatra. In the 1961 Sanremo song festival, Mina performed two songs: "Io amo, tu ami" ("I Love, You Love") finished fourth and "Le mille bolle blu" ("A Thousand Blue Bubbles") fifth. After the contest disappointment, Mina declared withdrawal from performing at the Sanremo song festival ever again.
International success (1961?1962)
As her songs and movies were already popular abroad, Mina started to tour Spain and Japan, and performed on Venezuelan TV in 1961. In the beginning of 1962, Mina performed on Spanish TV and the Paris Olympia hall. The presentation of her German single "Hei?er Sand" on 12 March 1962 on Peter Kraus's TV-show caused a boom of 40,000 record sales in ten days in Germany. The record went to #1 and spent over half a year in the German charts in 1962. In the subsequent two years, Mina charted six more singles in the German chart. In a listener's poll conducted in July 1962 in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking Switzerland, Mina was voted the most popular singer in the world. In May 1962, she performed in Buenos Aires. Meanwhile in the Italian charts, her mambo rhythm "Moliendo Cafe" and the surf pop "Renato" peaked respectively at #1 and #4. On the flipside of "Renato" appeared "L'eclisse twist" ("Eclipse Twist") designated for the soundtrack of Michelangelo Antonioni's feature film L'eclisse.
Growing up (1963?1965)
In 1963 Mina's TV and radio career was interrupted by RAI, as she refused to cover her relationship (and resulting pregnancy) with the married actor Corrado Pani. Mina's record sales stayed unaffected and due to the public demand, RAI ended the ban. On 10 January 1964, she returned to the screen in the La fiera dei sogni program, with the serious song "Citt? vuota" ("Empty City"). Mina changed her record label to Ri-Fi and her manager to Tonino Ascoldi. The first release of the team was the single "? l'uomo per me", a cover of Jody Miller's "He Walks Like a Man". The release became the biggest selling record of the year in Italy. Her new melodic maner was demonstrated again on 11 December 1964 TV program Il macchiettario, performing "Io sono quel che sono" ("I Am What I Am"). Reminding of her previous teeny image, her single in Japanese, "Suna ni kieta namida" ("Tears Disappear in the Sand") peaked at #1 in the Japanese singles chart and earned Mina the title of Best International Artist in Japan.
The first episode of the Studio Uno live Saturday night series presented Mina's new blond look with shaved eyebrows. The shows included the brooding songs "Un bacio ? troppo poco" (One Kiss is Not Enough) and "Un anno d'amore" (A Year of Love). In 2001, Elvis Costello used a sample from "Un bacio ? troppo poco" on his album When I Was Cruel. "Un anno d'amore" was Mina's version of Nino Ferrer's "C'est irreparable". In the same series she performed "Brava", a rhythmic jazz number specially written by Bruno Canfora to demonstrate Mina's vocal range and performing skills. Her Studio Uno album topped the Italian album chart of the year. Her recordings of 1965 included the scatting performance of "Spirale Waltz", the theme song for The 10th Victim movie.
"Se telefonando" (1966)
In Spring 1966, Maurizio Costanzo and Ghigo De Chiara, the authors of the Aria condizionata TV show, wrote the lyrics of the theme for their TV program. The serialist composer Ennio Morricone was asked to compose the music for the dark mode lyrics of "Se telefonando". The encounter of the three authors and Mina took place in a Radiotelevisione Italiana rehearsal room at Via Teulada, Rome. Morricone started to repeat a short musical theme or by his term a micro-cell of just three notes at an upright pianoforte. He had caught the piece of melody from the siren of a police car in Marseilles. After a few bars Mina grabbed the sheet with the lyrics and started to sing, as if she had known the tune before. The result was a pop song with eight transitions of tonality building tension throughout the chorus.
Sample from "Se telefonando".
"Se telefonando" was presented in May 1966 in a Studio Uno episode, and in August the same year at the Aria condizionata. The single peaked at #7 of the Italian chart and was 53rd in the annual list of sales. Featuring the song as one of the standout tracks among "Ta-ra-ta-ta" and "Una casa in cima al mondo", the Studio Uno 66 album was the 5th biggest selling album of the year in Italy. During the following decades, the song was covered by several performers in Italy and abroad, most notably by Francoise Hardy and Iva Zanicchi (1966), Delta V (2005), Vanessa and the O's (2007), and Neil Hannon (2008).
In 1966, Mina started to co-operate with the Swiss Broadcasting Service and Orchestra Radiosa in Lugano. In collaboration with her father, she founded their independent record label, PDU. The first record under the label was Dedicato a mio padre (Dedicated to My Father). Mina's growing interest in Brazilian music resulted in "La banda" ("The Band"), a Chico Buarque cover, reaching #3 in Italy. Mina continued to perform on Italian TV, singing "Zum zum zum" in the Sabato sera spring 1967 variety series, accompanied by NATO naval band. The series also included "La coppia pi? bella del mondo", a duet with Adriano Celentano. The title of the song "Sono, come tu mi vuoi" ("I Am, as You Want Me to Be") was taken from Luigi Pirandello's play Come tu mi vuoi. The song reported the manic attention of the press at the artist's private life. Another hit from the Sabato sera was "L'immensit?" ("Immensity"), re-scored by Augusto Martelli and released also as "La inmensidad" in Spain and Latin American countries.
"Se stasera sono qui"
Sample from the live performance of "Se stasera sono qui" from the third televised concert of Senza rete recorded in the Auditorio A of the RAI in Naples on 18 July 1968.
The third televised concert of Senza rete (Unplugged) was recorded live without playback on 18 July 1968. The set of the concert was the Auditorio A of the Radiotelevisione Italiana regional headquarters in Naples. The program presented Mina turning the late Luigi Tenco's song "Se stasera sono qui" ("Should I Stay Here Tonight") into a rigorous piece of soul music in the score of Pino Calvi. She celebrated the 10th anniversary of her career with a concert at La Bussola, backed by Orchestra Augusto Martelli. The concert was recorded and issued as Mina alla Bussola dal vivo. as the first live album in the history of the Italian art of singing.
"La voce del silenzio"
Sample from the live performance of "La voce del silenzio" ("Silent Voices") from the eighth Canzonissima Saturday night prime time variety show on 16 November 1968.
Canzonissima '68 was a Saturday night prime time variety show aired on Rai Uno from September 1968 to January 1969. It was hosted by Mina, Walter Chiari and Paolo Panelli. The show gathered unprecedented 20?22 million viewers per night, watching Mina's performances accompanied by an orchestra of 400 people and a choir of 130. The orchestrations were scored by the conductors Bruno Canfora and Augusto Martelli. "Sacumd? Sacumd?", Mina's talking and laughing version of Carlos Imperial's bossa nova "Nem Vem Que N?o Tem" narrowly escaped a ban by RAI because of its unholy lyrics. The song was performed as a part of a musical fantasy, back to back with "Quelli che hanno un cuore", her intense version of "Anyone Who Had a Heart". Another interpretation of a Dionne Warwick's song was "La voce del silenzio" ("Silent Voices") by Paolo Limiti and Elio Isola, in a live session during the show. "Niente di niente" ("Nothing at All") was her version of the Delfonics' "Break your promise". The series also included the songs "Fantasia", "La musica ? finita" ("The Music is Over") and the elegant "Un colpo al cuore" ("Heart Attack"). Each of the variety nights were closed by Mina singing "Vorrei che fosse amore" ("Wish It Was Love"), a piece of atmospheric music by Bruno Canfora. The songs of the variety series were issued as the album Canzonissima '68.
"Io e te da soli"
Sample from "Io e te da soli".
After a break of three months, Mina returned by recording and performing the song "Non credere" ("Disbelieve") composed by Luigi Clausetti and Pietro Soffici, and lyrics by Mogol, in April. The single became the third biggest-selling record of the year in Italy. This lead to cooperation with Mogol, his fellow composer Lucio Battisti and the Premiata Forneria Marconi providing the back-up instrumentals. The team produced a set of songs including "Io e te da soli" ("You and Me Alone"), "Insieme" ("Together"), "Amor mio" ("Love of Mine"), and "Io vivr? senza te" ("I Live without You"). "E penso a te" ("And I Think of You"), another song from the same short while, was later issued in English as a standout track on The Best of Tanita Tikaram. One of the first introductions of the new repertoire was the Senza rete live televised concert from the Auditorio A in Naples on 20 January 1970. The material provided by Mogol-Battisti was the core for five of Mina's albums. Bugiardo pi? che mai...pi? incosciente che mai... was Mina's first independent album in the weekly #1 of the Italian charts, being the biggest selling album of the year 1969 in Italy. ...quando tu mi spiavi in cima a un batticuore... was the seventh in the annual record chart of 1970 in Italy, Del mio meglio... (My Best...) the second in 1971, and Mina the biggest selling album of 1972 in Italy. The latter two albums were recorded during her break in live performances to give birth to her daughter Benedetta.
Mina's comeback took place at Italian Broadcasting Service's variety series Teatro 10, Spring 1972. One of the highlights of the series was a selection of Battisti's songs performed in duet with the composer and Mina. The shows also included "Balada para mi muerte" ("Ode to My Death"), a nuevo tango duet with ?stor Piazzolla at the bandone?n, backed by the Argentinian group Conjunto 9. Mina's song "Grande grande grande" was the second biggest selling single of the year in Italy. Covered by Shirley Bassey as "Never never never", it had international success at the Billboard Hot 100, UK Top 10 and #1 of the Australian charts. Mogol-Battisti's success encouraged Luigi Albertelli to copy Lucio Battisti's handwriting in the song "Fiume azzurro", which in Mina's interpretation earned a place in the Top 100 of the annual record sales in Italy.
The final number of the eight Teatro 10 episodes was "Parole parole" ("Words Words"), a duet with Alberto Lupo. The song was an easy listening dialogue of Mina's singing with Lupo's declamation. The theme of the song were hollow words. It intertwined the lady's lamentation of the end of love and the lies she had to hear, while the man simply spoke. In the dialog, she scoffed at the compliments that he gave her, calling them parole ? just words. The single was released in April 1972 to become a top hit of Italian charts, and become an evergreen among Italian pop songs. A year later, Dalida and Alain Delon recorded "Paroles paroles" in French and made it an international hit.
After the Teatro 10, Mina declared retirement from public appearances, due to take place after an exclusive concert at the La Bussola Club on September 16. This turned up thousands of people at the nightclub's doorstep. About 2,000 spectators struggled their way inside, leaving thousands to listen at the street and at the beach. Gianni Ferrio's Orchestra featured Gianni Basso at the tenor saxophone and Oscar Valdambrini at the trumpet.
Having lost her husband Virgilio Crocco in a car accident in 1973, Mina continued her chart success with "E poi..." ("And Then...") and "L'importante ? finire" ("The Important Thing Is to Finish") both topping the Italian charts. She also recorded the theme song "Fa presto, fa piano" ("Works Quickly, Works Quietly") for the film La sculacciata, issued in 1974.
Mina's last live TV appearance was the final episode of the Milleluci series on 16 March 1974. Alongside Raffaella Carr?, Mina was the hostess of the series. During the series, she crossed different styles, including the number called "I Don't Know How to Love Him" from the musical Jesus Christ Superstar, "Mack the Knife", "Night and Day" and "Someday (You'll Want Me to Want You)"). With "Non gioco pi?" ("The Game Is Over"), a blues duet with the harmonica player Toots Thielemans, Mina announced her withdrawal from public performances. Her last video appearance on TV was a censored version of her eroticist performance of "Ancora ancora ancora". The video was the final number of the "Mille e una luce" show on 1 July 1978. Her last concert appearances were in 1978 with a series of thirteen fully-booked concerts at La Bussola cut short due to her illness. Mina gave her last public performance on August 23, 1978 at the Bussoladomani theatre. This had been built as an extension of La Bussola to handle crowds of the magnitude of Mina's 1972 concert. The concert was recorded and issued as Mina Live '78. She never explained the reasons for her withdrawal from the public eye.
Mina continued to release albums on a yearly basis, with her son Massimiliano Pani as producer. Between 1972 and 1995 she published a double album a year. From 1973 her LPs and CDs have been characterized by the artistic motives of the designers Luciano Tallarini, Gianni Ronco and the photographer Mauro Balletti. From mid-1980s, the design of the album covers was trusted to Balletti alone. All of Mina's records under the PDU label have reached the Italian Top 100. A large part of her work has been covering well-known songs, dedicating monographic albums to The Beatles, Frank Sinatra, Renato Zero, Domenico Modugno, the Neapolitan song and religious music. After leaving the stage, her greatest chart success has been gained by duets. In 1985, "Questione di feeling", a duet with Riccardo Cocciante was the 13th most sold single of the year in Italy and became soon an evergreen. The album Mina Celentano, combining Mina with Adriano Celentano, was the biggest selling record of the year 1998 in Italy. Starting from 1989, all of her records included the jazzy fortepiano of Danilo Rea.
The break in Mina's TV appearances lasted until 2001, when she released footage of her recording sessions. The videos were broadcasted over the Wind internet site on 30 March. This resulted in millions of visits on the site at the night only, and additional millions on following days. The footage was released as the DVD Mina in Studio. After the event, Mina's singles started to chart in Italy again. The track "Succhiando l'uva" (2002), written for her by Zucchero, peaked at #3 of the chart, her cover of "Don't call me baby (Can't take my eyes off you)" (2003) reached #4 in Italy, and stayed among the 100 singles receiving the biggest airplay in the world for a month. The single "Alibi" (2007) reached #6 in Italy. The triple CD The Platinum Collection, an official Best of, reached #1 of Italian chart. So did Olio (1999), Veleno (2002), Bula Bula (2005) and Todav?a. Mina's late releases have included duets with Mick Hucknall, Fabrizio De Andr?, Piero Pel?, Adriano Celentano, Lucio Dalla, Joan Manuel Serrat, Chico Buarque, Tiziano Ferro and Giorgia. In recent years, Mina has been writing a weekly column at the front page of La Stampa and a page in the Italian edition of the magazine Vanity Fair, answering fanletters.
Musical style and public image
Mina is a soprano with great extension and agility. Swingy and anti-melodic in her early years ("Tintarella di luna", 1959), her singing later acquired high dramatic tones.
Queen of Screamers
Caught by the wave of rock and roll sweeping across Italy in 1958, Mina listened to American records and was a frequent visitor at the Derby jazzclub, the Santa Tecla and the Taverna Messicana clubs of Milan, which promoted rock and roll music at the time. Part of Mina?s repertoire in the beginning of her career were clumsy imitations of British and American rock and jazz songs while her extra-loud and syncopated version of the song "Nessuno" showcased her excellent sense of rhythm. Earlier in 1958, Domenico Modugno had caused astonishment by raising his hands in the air during his performance of Nel blu dipinto di blu (?Volare?). Mina?s first TV appearances took a step further in breaking the rule of the motionless artist, shaking her head, hands and hips in the rhythm. The writer Edoardo Sanguineti recalled the encounter of the Italian public with the enthusiastic singer as:
for many people a memorable experience, a revelation.
For her distinctive timbre and power, TV host Mario Riva entitled her as one of the urlatori (screamers), meaning the energetic rock and roll generation. Later, the public considered Mina as the queen of Screamers. Her extravagant gestures earned her another nickname ? Tiger of Cremona.
Mina?s new sensual manner was introduced by the ballad "Il cielo in una stanza" in 1960. Three years later, her love affair with Corrado Pani represented the emancipation of women in Italy that did not accord with the dominant Catholic and bourgeois virtues. The subsequent ban from performing at the Italian TV and radio channels developed an image of Mina as a ?bad girl?, which she emphasized later with her song themes. An example was her performance of "Sacumd? Sacumd?" on air, after RAI (the Italian broadcasting service) had expressed their displeasure with the lyrics about a girl?s encounter with the Devil. Other songs, the RAI considered immoral and initially banned, were "Ta-ra-ta-ta" (dealing forthright with smoking), "La canzone di Marinella", and "L'importante ? finire" (alluding to sex without love). Mina's sexy appeal and her cool act featured public smoking, dyed blonde hair, shaved eyebrows, and heavy use of eye make-up.
The main theme of Mina's songs were distressing love stories. Her style was to interprete them in a highly dramatic way, her mimics and body living with the storyline. The music critic Gherardo Gentili has noted on her interpretive skills as:
By Mina, a word became the word, a note became the note.
To demonstrate Mina's vocal range, the composer Bruno Canfora wrote the song "Brava". Ennio Morricone composed the song "Se telefonando" for her with numerous transitions of tonality. More songs were exclusively composed for Mina and arranged for RAI's all-star orchestras for the performances in the TV variety series Studio uno, Sabato sera, Canzonissima and Teatro 10. Mina combined the classic Italian pop with features of blues, R&B and soul music, particularly in the songs "Se stasera sono qui" and "Deborah". She helped to incorporate new styles to the Italian pop music, particularly nuevo tango with "Balada para mi muerte".
Marking a turn of musical style, Mina changed her hairdo from short and straight into long blonde curls, and started to wear a black minidress in 1969. Mogol's and Lucio Battisti's first songs resumed with Mina's blues and soul skills, particularly "Insieme" and "Io e te da soli". Along the time of their cooperation, Mina turned towards middle-of-the-road pop. Battisti's melodies were sophisticated and had a complex chord sequence. The songs were characterized by frequent changes of rhythm, pauses and dialogues between the voice and the orchestra. Another characterizing feature was an instrumental introduction without a rhythmic base. Lucio Battisti called Mina an ideal singer for a composer, making the best of the authors' complicated ideas and Italian language skills.
A fan of bossa nova, Mina recorded in Spanish and Portuguese from the start of her career and currently enjoys a fan base in Spain and Latin America. The Spanish director Pedro Almod?var has used Mina's songs in his movie soundtracks. In 2001, Mina published the compilation album Colecci?n Latina, with standards in Spanish, as well as Spanish covers of her originals. In 2003 the musical "Mina... che cosa sei?" was staged in Argentina, based on Mina's songs. In 2007, Mina published Todav?a, an album in Spanish and Catalan, which reached #36 on the Spanish charts and #1 in the Italian charts. It included duets with Joan Manuel Serrat, Miguel Bos?, Diego Torres, Chico Buarque, and Diego El Cigala.
Mina has recorded over a thousand songs, 110 albums, sold 76 million records, and scored 70 singles in Italian charts. Mina is the only artist to land an album at the 1st place of the Italian charts in each of the five decades from the initiation of the album chart in 1965. President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi presented her with the 2nd Class of the Italian Order of Merit on 1 June 2001.
At her early teens, Mina was a competitive swimmer for the prestigious Canottieri Baldesio sports club in Cremona. At her age of 16, she met her first boyfriend at the swimming pool who was a fullback for the U.S. Cremonese football club. In 1962, Mina fell in love with the actor Corrado Pani. As he was already married, although separated from his wife, their relationship shocked Italian audiences. On April 18, 1963 their son Massimiliano Pani was born. Due to Mina's refusal to hide her relationship, the singer was banned from performing on any public Italian television or radio channels. As her record sales were unaffected, and audiences demanded to see Mina on the air, RAI was forced to end the ban and let Mina return to television on January 10, 1964. Within a year, her affair with Corrado ended, resulting in a legal battle for custody of Massimiliano. Mina's brother Alfredo Mazzini died in a car accident in 1965. A year later she and her father moved to live in Lugano, Switzerland. Mina's intimate relationships, however, remained in Italy, as she had a brief affair with the Italian TV actor Walter Chiari. A later relationship - with the actor Gian Maria Volont? - ended after she found out about Volont?'s affair with an actress. Mina's great love of the late sixties, with whom she had a relationship that lasted three years and almost led to marriage, was the composer Augusto Martelli. In 1970 she met and married Virgilio Crocco, a journalist for Il Messaggero. In November 1971 their daughter Benedetta Mazzini was born. In 1973, Crocco died in a car accident. In 1981 Mina began a relationship with the Swiss cardiologist Eugenio Quaini. In 1990 she acquired Swiss citizenship. Mina Anna Mazzini and Eugenio Quaini were married on January 10, 2006. As required by Swiss law, Mina took on her husband's last name, becoming Mrs. Mina Anna Quaini. The public, however, knows her still as Mina Mazzini. Mina's passions include cooking and poker.