Danny Kaye

Danny Kaye (January 18, 1913 ??? March 3, 1987) was an American award-winning actor, singer and comedian.


Early years


Born David Daniel Kaminsky to Jewish Ukrainian immigrants in Brooklyn, Kaye became one of the world's best-known comedians. He spent his early youth attending Public School 149 in East New York, Brooklyn, before moving to Thomas Jefferson High School, but he never graduated. He learned his trade in his teenage years in the Catskills as a tummler in the Borscht Belt.


Career


Danny Kaye made his film debut in a 1935 comedy short entitled Moon Over Manhattan. In 1937 he signed with New York-based Educational Pictures for a series of two-reel comedies. Kaye usually played a manic, dark-haired, fast-talking Russian in these low-budget shorts, opposite young hopefuls June Allyson or Imogene Coca. The Kaye series ended abruptly when the studio shut down permanently in 1938.


Kaye scored a personal triumph in 1941, in the hit Broadway comedy Lady in the Dark. His show-stopping number was "Tchaikovsky", by Kurt Weill and Ira Gershwin, in which he sang the names of a whole string of Russian composers at breakneck speed, seemingly without taking a breath.


His feature film debut was in producer Samuel Goldwyn's Technicolor 1944 comedy Up in Arms, a remake of Goldwyn's Eddie Cantor comedy Whoopee! (1930). Goldwyn agonized over Kaye's ethnic, Borscht-belt looks and ordered him to undergo a nose job. Kaye refused, and Goldwyn found another way to brighten Kaye's dark features by lightening his hair, giving him his trademark redheaded locks. Kaye's rubber face and fast patter were an instant hit, and rival producer Robert M. Savini cashed in almost immediately by compiling three of Kaye's old Educational Pictures shorts into a makeshift feature, The Birth of a Star (1945).


Kaye starred in several movies with actress Virginia Mayo in the 1940s, and is well known for his roles in films such as The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (1947), The Inspector General (1949), On the Riviera (1951) co-starring Gene Tierney, White Christmas (1954, in a role originally intended for Fred Astaire, then Donald O'Connor), Knock on Wood (1954), The Court Jester (1956), and Merry Andrew (1958). Kaye starred in two pictures based on biographies, Hans Christian Andersen (1952) about the Danish story-teller, and The Five Pennies (1959) about jazz pioneer Red Nichols. His wife, writer/lyricist Sylvia Fine, wrote many of the witty, tongue-twisting songs Danny Kaye became famous for. Some of Kaye's films included the theme of doubles, two people who look identical (both played by Danny Kaye) being mistaken for each other, to comic effect. The Kaye-Fine marriage, as was the case with many spouses who worked together in the high-pressure world of film-making, was sometimes stormy.


During World War II, the Federal Bureau of Investigation investigated rumors that Kaye dodged the draft by manufacturing a medical condition to gain 4-F status and exemption from military service. FBI files show he was also under investigation for supposed links with Communist groups. The allegations were never substantiated, and he was never charged with any associated crime.


Other projects


Kaye starred in a radio program of his own, The Danny Kaye Show, on CBS in 1945-1946. Although it had a stellar cast (including Eve Arden, Lionel Stander, and Big Band leader Harry James), and was scripted by radio notables Goodman Ace, Sylvia Fine, and respected playwright-director Abe Burrows, the show failed to make proper use of its star, and never found an audience. It turned out to be a very bitter experience for both Kaye and Ace. Many episodes survive today, and are notable for Kaye's opening "nonsense" patter.


Kaye was sufficiently popular that he inspired imitations:


The 1946 Warner Bros. cartoon Book Revue had a lengthy sequence with Daffy Duck impersonating Kaye singing "Carolina in the Morning" with the Russian accent that Kaye would affect from time to time.
Satirical songwriter Tom Lehrer's 1953 song "Lobachevsky" was based on a number that Kaye had done, about the Russian director Konstantin Stanislavski, again with the affected Russian accent. Lehrer mentioned Kaye in the opening monologue, citing him as an "idol since childbirth."

When he appeared at the London Palladium music hall in 1948, he "roused the Royal family to shrieks of laughter and was the first of many performers who have turned English variety into an American preserve." Life magazine described his reception as "worshipful hysteria" and noted that the royal family, for the first time in history, left the royal box to see the show from the front row of the orchestra.


He hosted the 24th Academy Awards in 1952. The program was broadcast only on radio. Telecasts of the Oscar ceremony would come later.


He hosted his own variety hour on CBS television, The Danny Kaye Show, from 1963 to 1967. During this period, beginning in 1964, he acted as television host to the annual CBS telecasts of MGM's The Wizard of Oz. Kaye also did a stint as one of the What's My Line? Mystery Guests on the popular Sunday night CBS-TV quiz program. Kaye later served as a guest panelist on that show. He also appeared on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood.


He guest-starred much later in his career in episodes of The Muppet Show, The Cosby Show and in the 1980s revival of The Twilight Zone.


Kaye was the original owner of baseball's Seattle Mariners along with his partner Lester Smith from 1977 to 1981. Prior to that, the lifelong fan of the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers recorded a song called "The D-O-D-G-E-R-S Song (Oh really? No, O'Malley!)", describing a fictitious encounter with the San Francisco Giants, which was a hit during those clubs' real-life pennant chase of 1962. That song is included on one of the Baseball's Greatest Hits compact discs.


During the 1950s, Kaye visited Australia, where he played "Buttons" in a production of Cinderella in Sydney. In the 1970s Kaye injured his leg during the run of the Richard Rodgers musical Two by Two, but went on with the show, cavorting on stage from a wheelchair.


In many of his movies, as well as on stage, Kaye proved to be a very able actor, singer, dancer and comedian. He showed quite a different and serious side as Ambassador for UNICEF and in his dramatic role in the memorable TV movie Skokie, in which he played a Holocaust survivor. Before his death in 1987, Kaye demonstrated his ability to conduct an orchestra during a comical, but technically sound, series of concerts organized for UNICEF fundraising. Kaye received two Academy Awards: an honorary award in 1955 and the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award in 1982.


In 1980, Kaye hosted and sang in the 25th Anniversary of Disneyland celebration, and hosted the opening celebration for Epcot in 1982 (EPCOT Center at the time), both of which were aired on prime-time American television.


In his later years he took to entertaining at home as chef ??? he had a special stove installed in his patio ??? and specialized in Chinese cooking. The theater and demonstration kitchen underneath the library at the Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park, New York is named for him.


He also had a longstanding interest in medicine and was permitted to observe surgery on several occasions.


He was an accomplished pilot, rated for airplanes ranging from single engine light aircraft to multi-engine jets.


The bench at Danny Kaye's grave in Kensico Cemetery

Kaye died in 1987 from a heart attack, following a bout of hepatitis. He left a widow, Sylvia Fine, and a daughter, Dena. He is interred in the Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, New York. His grave is adorned with a bench that contains friezes of a baseball and bat, an aircraft, a piano, a flower pot, musical notes, and a glove.


Throughout his life, Kaye donated to various charities.


Working alongside UNICEF's Halloween fundraiser founder, Ward Simon Kimball Jr., the actor educated the public on impoverished children in deplorable living conditions overseas and assisted in the distribution of donated goods and funds.


Kaye was enamored of music. While he often claimed an inability to read music, he was quite the conductor, and was said to have perfect pitch. Kaye was often invited to conduct symphonies as charity fundraisers. Over the course of his career he raised over US$5,000,000 in support of musicians pension funds.


Personal life


After Kaye and his wife became estranged, he was allegedly involved with a succession of women, though he and Fine never formally divorced. The best-known of these women was actress Eve Arden.


There are persistent rumors that Kaye was either homosexual or bisexual, and some sources claim that Kaye and Laurence Olivier had a 10-year affair in the 1950s, while Olivier was still married to Vivien Leigh. A biography of Leigh states that their affair caused her to have a breakdown. The affair has been denied by Olivier's official biographer, Terry Coleman. Joan Plowright, Olivier's widow, has dealt with the matter in different ways on different occasions: she deflected the question (but alluded to Olivier's "demons") in a BBC interview , and was reported saying on another occasion that ""I have always resented the comments that it was I who was the homewrecker of Larry's marriage to Vivien Leigh. Danny Kaye was attached to Larry far earlier than I." However, in her memoirs Plowright denies that there had been an affair between the two men. Producer Perry Lafferty reported: ???People would ask me, ???Is he gay? Is he gay???? I never saw anything to substantiate that in all the time I was with him.??? Kaye???s final girlfriend, Marlene Sorosky, reported that he told her, ???I???ve never had a homosexual experience in my life. I???ve never had any kind of gay relationship. I???ve had opportunities, but I never did anything about them.???


Honors, awards, and tributes


Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (1981)
Asteroid 6546 Kaye
Kennedy Center Honor (1984)
The song I Wish I Was Danny Kaye on Miracle Legion's 1996 album Portrait of a Damaged Family
On June 23, 1987, Danny Kaye was posthumously presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Ronald Reagan. The award was received by his daughter, Miss Dena Kaye.

Filmography


Film
#
Title
Year
Role
Director
Co-stars
Filmed in
1.
Moon Over Manhattan
1935
Himself
Al Christie
Sylvia Froos, Marion Martin
Black and white
2.
Dime a Dance
1937
Eddie
Al Christie
Imogene Coca, June Allyson
Black and white
3.
Getting an Eyeful
1938
Russian
Al Christie
Charles Kemper, Sally Starr
Black and white
4.
Cupid Takes a Holiday
1938
Nikolai Nikolaevich (bride-seeker)
William Watson
Douglas Leavitt, Estelle Jayne
Black and white
5.
Money on Your Life
1938
Russian
William Watson
Charles Kemper, Sally Starr
Technicolor
6.
Up in Arms
1944
Danny Weems
Elliott Nugent
Dinah Shore, Dana Andrews
Technicolor
7.
Wonder Man
1945
Edwin Dingle / Buzzy Bellew
H. Bruce Humberstone
Virginia Mayo, Vera-Ellen, Steve Cochran
Technicolor
8.
The Kid from Brooklyn
1946
Burleigh Hubert Sullivan
Norman Z. McLeod
Virginia Mayo, Vera-Ellen, Steve Cochran, Eve Arden
Technicolor
9.
The Secret Life of Walter Mitty
1947
Walter Mitty
Norman Z. McLeod
Virginia Mayo, Boris Karloff, Fay Bainter, Ann Rutherford
Technicolor
10.
A Song Is Born
1948
Professor Hobart Frisbee
Howard Hawks
Virginia Mayo, Benny Goodman, Hugh Herbert, Steve Cochran
Technicolor
11.
It's a Great Feeling
1949
Himself
David Bulter
Dennis Morgan, Doris Day, Jack Carson
Technicolor
12.
The Inspector General
1949
Georgi
Henry Koster
Walter Slezak, Barbara Bates, Elsa Lanchester, Gene Lockhart
Technicolor
13.
On the Riviera
1951
Jack Martin / Henri Duran
Walter Lang
Gene Tierney, Corinne Calvet
Technicolor
14.
Hans Christian Andersen
1952
Hans Christian Andersen
Charles Vidor
Farley Granger, Zizi Jeanmaire
Technicolor
15.
Knock on Wood
1954
Jerry Morgan / Papa Morgan
Norman Panama

Mevin Frank
Mai Zetterling, Torin Thatcher
Technicolor
16.
White Christmas
1954
Phil Davis
Michael Curtiz
Bing Crosby, Rosemary Clooney, Vera-Ellen, Dean Jagger
VistaVision

Technicolor
17.
The Court Jester
1956
Hubert Hawkins
Norman Panama

Mevin Frank
Glynis Johns, Basil Rathbone, Angela Lansbury
VistaVision

Technicolor
18.
Merry Andrew
1958
Andrew Larabee
Michael Kidd
Anna Maria, Pier Angeli
CinemaScope

Metrocolor
19.
Me and the Colonel
1958
Samuel L. Jacobowsky
Peter Glenville
Curd J??rgens, Nicole Maurey, Fran?žoise Rosay, Akim Tamiroff
Black and white
20.
The Five Pennies
1959
Red Nichols
Melville Shavelson
Barbara Bel Geddes, Louis Armstrong, Tuesday Weld
VistaVision

Technicolor
21.
The Millionairess
1960
Tommy True
Anthony Asquith
Sophia Loren, Peter Sellers, Alastair Sim, Vittorio de Sica
CinemaScope

Eastmancolor
22.
On the Double
1961
Pfc. Ernie Williams
Melville Shavelson
Dana Wynter, Margaret Rutherford, Diana Dors
Panavision

Technicolor
23.
The Man from the Diner's Club
1963
Ernest Klenk
Frank Tashlin
Cara Williams, Martha Hyer
Black and white
24.
The Madwoman of Chaillot
1969
The Ragpicker
Bryan Forbes
Katharine Hepburn, Charles Boyer
Technicolor
Television
Autumn Laughter (1938) (experimental telecast)
The Danny Kaye Show with Lucille Ball (1962) (special)
The Danny Kaye Show (1963-1967) (series)
The Lucy Show: "Lucy Meets Danny Kaye" (1964) (guest appearance)
Here Comes Peter Cottontail (1971) (voice)
The Enchanted World of Danny Kaye: The Emperor's New Clothes (1972) (special)
An Evening with John Denver (1975) (special)
Pinocchio (1976) (special)
Peter Pan (1976) (special)
The Muppet Show (1978) (guest appearance)
Disneyland's 25th Anniversary (1980) (special guest appearance)
An Evening with Danny Kaye (1981) (special)
Skokie (1981)
The New Twilight Zone: "Paladin of the Lost Hour" (1985) (guest appearance)
The Cosby Show: "The Dentist" (1986) (guest appearance)

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Original Wikipedia article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danny Kaye