Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 ??? October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter. His works include the musical comedies Kiss Me, Kate, Fifty Million Frenchmen, DuBarry Was a Lady and Anything Goes, as well as songs like "Night and Day", "I Get a Kick out of You", "Well, Did You Evah!" and "I've Got You Under My Skin". He was noted for his sophisticated bawdy lyrics, clever rhymes, and complex forms. He was one of the greatest contributors to the Great American Songbook. Cole Porter is one of the few Tin Pan Alley composers to have written both lyrics and music for his songs.
Porter was born in Peru, Indiana, to a wealthy Baptist family; his maternal grandfather, James Omar "J.O." Cole, was a coal and timber speculator who dominated his daughter's family. His mother started Porter in musical training at an early age; he learned the violin at age six, the piano at eight, and he wrote his first operetta (with help from his mother) at 10. Porter's mother, Kate, recognized and supported her son's talents. She changed his legal birth year from 1891 to 1893 to make him appear more precocious. Porter's grandfather J.O. Cole wanted the boy to become a lawyer, and with that career in mind, sent him to Worcester Academy in 1905 (where he became class valedictorian) and then Yale University beginning in 1909.
Porter was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon (Phi chapter), and sang both in the Yale Glee Club, of which he was elected president his senior year, and in the original line-up of the Whiffenpoofs. While at Yale, he wrote a number of student songs, including the football fight songs "Bulldog Bulldog" and "Bingo Eli Yale" (aka "Bingo, That's The Lingo!") that are still played at Yale to this day. Cole Porter wrote 300 songs while at Yale.
Porter spent a year at Harvard Law School in 1913 (where he roomed with Dean Acheson), and then transferred into Arts and Sciences. An apocryphal story tells of a law school dean who, in frustration over Porter's lack of performance in the classroom, suggested tongue-in-cheek that he "not waste his time" studying law, but instead focus on his music. Taking this suggestion to heart, Porter transferred to the School of Music.
In 1915, his first song on Broadway, "Esmeralda", appeared in the revue Hands Up. The quick success was immediately followed by failure; his first Broadway production, in 1916, See America First (with a book by T. Lawrason Riggs), was a flop, closing after two weeks. Hitchy-Koo of 1919 with star Raymond Hitchcock closed after 56 performances.
Porter soon started to feel the crunch of rejection, as other revues for which he wrote were also flops. After the string of failures, Porter banished himself to Paris, selling songs and living off an allowance partly from his grandfather and partly from his mother.
Paris and marriage
Porter was working as a songwriter when the U.S. entered World War I in 1917. He traveled all over Europe, socializing with some of the best-known intellectuals and artists in Europe, and becoming a charter member of the Lost Generation.
He enlisted in the French Foreign Legion after working for the Duryea Relief Fund for a short time. Porter served in North Africa. He was transferred in 1917 to the French Officers School at Fontainebleau and was assigned to teach gunnery to American soldiers. He set up a luxury apartment in Paris and alternated between his officer duties and leading a playboy lifestyle. The French Foreign Legion still displays his portrait in its museum in Aubagne.
In 1918, Porter met Linda Lee Thomas, a rich, Louisville, Kentucky-born divorc?Še eight years his senior, whom he married the following year. Porter was often photographed in the arms of beautiful women and was married for 34 years to Thomas, who conceived and miscarried. According to the writer of the book Noel & Cole: the Sophisticates, Porter had "frequent homosexual encounters." The writer of the book Cole Porter: A Biography writes about Porter's "homosexual escapades". De-Lovely, a 2004 movie starring Kevin Kline and Ashley Judd, portrayed his gay life.
On the sidelines
Unlike contemporaries such as George Gershwin and Irving Berlin, Porter did not succeed on Broadway in his early years. Dismayed by his failures, he moved to Europe, living for some time in Paris and Venice on his family's and his wife's money. He was not idle, however, and continued to write. Many of the songs from this period would later be hits.
In his autobiography, Musical Stages, Richard Rodgers relates an anecdote about meeting Porter in Venice during this period. Porter played Rodgers several of his compositions and Rodgers was highly impressed, wondering why Porter was not represented on Broadway. Rodgers didn't realize that Porter had already written several shows that had flopped.
In the late 1920s Porter returned to Broadway and made up for lost time.
Porter reintroduced himself to Broadway with the musical Paris (1928), which featured one of his greatest "list" songs, "Let's Do It (Let's Fall in Love)". Following this Gallic theme, his next show was Fifty Million Frenchmen (1929), which included several popular numbers including "You Do Something to Me" and "You've Got That Thing". Finishing out the decade, opening on December 30, 1929, was Wake Up and Dream, with a score that included "What Is This Thing Called Love?"
He started the 1930s with the revue The New Yorkers (1930), which included a song about a streetwalker, "Love for Sale". The lyric was considered too explicit for radio at the time*, but has gone on to become a standard. Next came Fred Astaire's last stage show, Gay Divorce (1932). It featured a hit that would become perhaps Porter's best-known song, "Night and Day". (Other than the Waring's Pennsylvanians 1930 version of the song, which featured The Three Girls Friends singing the chorus, and two recordings Astaire made in London, all other 1930 recordings were instrumental.)
In 1934, Porter wrote what is thought by most to be his greatest score of this period, Anything Goes (1934). Its songs include "I Get a Kick out of You", "All Through the Night", perhaps his ultimate "list" song "You're the Top", and "Blow, Gabriel, Blow", as well as the title number. For years after, critics would compare most Porter shows ??? unfavorably ??? to this one. Anything Goes was also the first Porter show featuring Ethel Merman, who would go on to star in five of his musicals. He loved her loud, brassy voice, and wrote many numbers that featured her strengths.
Jubilee (1935), written with Moss Hart while on a cruise around the world, was not a major hit, but featured two songs that have since become part of the Great American Songbook ??? "Begin the Beguine" and "Just One of Those Things". Red Hot And Blue (1936), featuring Merman, Jimmy Durante and Bob Hope, introduced "It's De-Lovely", "Down in the Depths (on the Ninetieth Floor)", and "Ridin' High".
Porter also wrote for Hollywood, including the scores for Born to Dance (1936), featuring "You'd Be So Easy to Love" and "I've Got You Under My Skin", and Rosalie (1937), featuring "In the Still of the Night". In addition, he had composed the cowboy song "Don't Fence Me In" for an unproduced movie in the 1930s, but it didn't become a hit until Roy Rogers and Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, as well as other artists, introduced it to the public in the 1940s.
Porter continued to live the high life during this period, throwing lavish parties and hobnobbing with the likes of Elsa Maxwell, Monty Woolley, Beatrice Lillie, Igor Stravinsky and Fanny Brice. In fact, some of his lyrics mention his friends. Now at the height of his success, Porter was able to enjoy the opening night of his musicals; he would make a grand entrance and sit up front, apparently relishing the show as much as any audience member.
Then, in 1937, a riding accident at the Piping Rock Club in Locust Valley, New York, crushed his legs and left him in chronic pain, largely crippled. (According to a biography by William McBrien and oral history by Brendan Gill, Porter himself has it that he composed the lyrics to part of "At Long Last Love" while lying in pain waiting to be rescued from the accident.) Doctors told Porter's wife and mother that his right leg would have to be amputated and possibly the left one as well. Porter underwent more than 30 surgeries on his legs and was in constant pain for the rest of his life. During this period, the many operations led him to severe depression. He was one of the first people who experienced electric shock therapy.
Despite his pain, Porter continued to write successful shows. Leave It to Me! (1938) (introducing Mary Martin singing "My Heart Belongs to Daddy"), DuBarry Was a Lady (1939), Panama Hattie (1940), Let's Face It! (1941), Something for the Boys (1943), and Mexican Hayride (1944) were all hits. These shows included songs such as "Get Out of Town", "Friendship", "Make It Another Old-Fashioned Please", and "I Love You". Porter liked to use as many as four different orchestrators to cover the various arrangements he envisaged for his scores. Nevertheless, Porter was turning out fewer hit songs and, to some critics, his music was less magical. After two flops, Seven Lively Arts (1944) (which featured the standard "Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye") and Around The World (1946), many thought that his best period was over.
In 1948, Porter made a great comeback, writing what was by far his biggest hit show, Kiss Me, Kate. The production won the Tony Award for Best Musical, and Porter won for Best Composer and Lyricist. The score ??? generally conceded to be his best ??? includes "Another Op'nin' Another Show", "Wunderbar", "So In Love", "We Open in Venice", "Tom, Dick or Harry", "I've Come to Wive It Wealthily in Padua", "Too Darn Hot", "Always True to You in My Fashion", and "Brush Up Your Shakespeare". Porter was back on top.
Though his next show ??? Out Of This World (1950) ??? was not greatly successful, the show after that, Can-Can (1952), featuring "C'est Magnifique" and "It's All Right with Me", was a major hit. His last original Broadway production, Silk Stockings (1955), featuring "All of You", was also successful.
After his riding accident, Porter continued to work in Hollywood, writing the scores for two Fred Astaire movies, Broadway Melody of 1940 (1940), which featured an old hit, "Begin The Beguine," and a new one, "I Concentrate on You", and You'll Never Get Rich (1941). He later wrote the songs for the Gene Kelly and Judy Garland musical The Pirate (1948). The film lost money, though it does feature the delightful "Be a Clown" (intriguingly echoed in Donald O'Connor's performance of "Make 'Em Laugh" in the 1952 musical film Singin' in the Rain). High Society (1956), starring Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra and Grace Kelly, had Porter's last major hit, "True Love". He wrote songs for Les Girls (1957) with Gene Kelly. His final score was for a CBS color special, Aladdin (1958); Columbia Records issued a stereophonic LP of songs from the program.
Eventually, his injuries caught up with him. After a series of ulcers and 34 operations on his right leg, it had to be amputated and replaced with an artificial limb in 1958. The operation followed the death of his beloved mother in 1952 and his wife's death from emphysema in 1954. The combined hardships Porter endured proved to be too much. He never wrote another song after 1958 and spent the remaining years of his life in relative seclusion.
Cole Porter died of kidney failure on October 15, 1964, at the age of 73 in Santa Monica, California, and is interred in Mount Hope Cemetery in his native Peru, Indiana. Porter is buried between his wife and father. According to Charles Schwartz in Cole Porter, A Biography, this was ironic, since Porter was not close to his father. The book further states that there are erroneous reports that claim that Porter was buried between Linda and his mother, Kate.
At halftime of the 1991 Orange Bowl between Colorado and Notre Dame, Joel Grey led a large cast of singers and dancers in a tribute to Porter marking one hundred years since his birth. The program was called, "You'll Get a Kick Out of Cole".
In 1990 Red Hot + Blue was released featuring 20 Cole Porter songs recorded by artists such as U2 and Annie Lennox as a benefit CD for AIDS research.
In country singer Jo Dee Messina's song "These Are The Days", Porter is referenced as the protagonist reveals she sings old Cole Porter songs.
In 2004 Jazz and Electronica producer Billy Paul Williams reinterpreted his hits on the feature album named The Porter Project.
In 2008, pianist/vocalist Patricia Barber released "The Cole Porter Mix," consisting of her take on 10 Cole Porter classics as well as three originals inspired by Cole Porter.
The French Foreign Legion, which backs up Porter's claim to have been a legionnaire, honors him with a portrait that hangs in the Legion's official museum.
The Cole Porter Festival is held every year the second weekend of June, in his hometown of Peru, Indiana. The festival fosters music and art appreciation by celebrating the life and music of Cole Porter.
His life was made into Night and Day, a very sanitized 1946 Michael Curtiz film starring Cary Grant and Alexis Smith. His life was chronicled more realistically in De-Lovely, a 2004 Irwin Winkler film starring Kevin Kline as Porter and Ashley Judd as Linda.
Judy Garland performed a medley of Porter's songs at the 37th Academy Awards, the first Oscars ceremony held following Porter's death.
In 1980, Porter's music was used for the score of Happy New Year, based on the Philip Barry play Holiday. He is referenced in the song "The Call of the Wild" (Merengue) by David Byrne on his 1989 album Rei Momo. He is also mentioned in the song "Tonite It Shows" by Mercury Rev on their 1998 album Deserter's Songs.
Porter was a Steinway Artist, which means that he chose to perform on Steinway pianos exclusively, and he owned a Steinway piano. Porter's piano is currently in the lobby of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City.
See also: Category:Compositions by Cole Porter
Shows listed are stage musicals unless otherwise noted. (Where the show was later made into a film, the year refers to the stage version.)
A complete list of Porter's works is in the Library of Congress (Complete List of Cole Porter works, and Cole Porter Collection at the Library of Congress).
(1916) See America First
(1919) Hitchy-Koo Of 1919 ??? "An Old Fashioned Garden"
(1928) Paris ??? "Let's Do It, Let's Fall in Love"
(1929) Wake Up and Dream ??? "What Is This Thing Called Love?"
(1929) Fifty Million Frenchmen ??? "You Do Something to Me"
(1930) The New Yorkers ??? "Love for Sale", "I Happen to Like New York"
(1932) Gay Divorce ??? "After You, Who?", "Night And Day" (basis for film renamed The Gay Divorcee in 1934)
(1933) Nymph Errant ??? "Experiment", "The Physician", "It's Bad for Me"
(1934) Anything Goes ??? "All Through the Night", "Anything Goes", "Blow Gabriel, Blow", "I Get a Kick Out of You", "You're the Top"
(1934) Adios Argentina (un-produced) ??? "Don't Fence Me In"
(1935) Jubilee ??? "Begin the Beguine", "Just One of Those Things"
(1936) Red, Hot and Blue ??? "It's De-Lovely"
(1936) Born to Dance (film) ??? "Down in the Depths (on the Ninetieth Floor)", "You'd Be So Easy to Love", "I've Got You Under My Skin"
(1937) Rosalie (film) ??? "In the Still of the Night"
(1937) You Never Know ??? "At Long Last Love", "From Alpha to Omega", "Let's Misbehave"
(1938) Leave It to Me! ??? "From Now On", "My Heart Belongs to Daddy"
(1939) Broadway Melody Of 1940 ??? "Between You And Me", "I Concentrate on You", "I've Got My Eyes on You", "I Happen to Be in Love", "Begin the Beguine"
(1939) Dubarry Was A Lady ??? "Do I Love You?", "Well, Did You Evah!", "Friendship"
(1940) Panama Hattie ??? "Let's Be Buddies", "Make It Another Old-Fashioned, Please"
(1941) You'll Never Get Rich (film) ??? "Dream Dancing", "So Near and Yet So Far"
(1941) Let's Face It! ??? "Everything I Love", "I Hate You, Darling"
(1942) Something for the Boys ??? "Could It Be You"
(1942) Something to Shout About ??? "You'd Be So Nice to Come Home To"
(1943) Mexican Hayride ??? "I Love You"
(1944) Seven Lively Arts ??? "Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye"
(1946) Around the World ??? "Look What I Found"
(1947) The Pirate ??? "Be a Clown"
(1948) Kiss Me, Kate ??? "Another Op'nin', Another Show", "Brush Up Your Shakespeare", "I Hate Men", "So in Love", "Too Darn Hot"
(1950) Out Of This World ??? "From This Moment On", "I Am Loved"
(1950) Stage Fright (film) - "The Laziest Gal In Town"
(1953) Can-Can ??? "I Am in Love", "I Love Paris", "C'est Magnifique"
(1954) Silk Stockings ??? "All of You", "Paris Loves Lovers"
(1955) High Society ??? "Mind if I Make Love to You?", "True Love", "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?", "You're Sensational"
(1956) Les Girls ??? "Ca, C'est L'amour", "You're Just Too, Too"
(1958) Aladdin (television) ??? "Opportunity Knocks But Once", "Come To The Supermarket (In Old Peking)"
A far more comprehensive list of Cole Porter songs, along with their date of composition and original show, is available here: .
^ a b John Derbyshire (NRO columnist), "Oh, the Songs!" (indepth review of film De-Lovely), 2004-07-28, National Review Online (nationalreview.com), webpage: NationalReview-CP: explains Cole Porter's marriage.
^ a b c d "Cole Porter Biography written by JX Bell" (includes lives of parents/grandparents), www.ColePorter.org, ColePorterOrg-bio, accessed 2006-09-21.
^ Cole Porter Official web site
^ Legion of the Lost
^ French Foreign Legion Official web site
^ All About Jewish Theatre - How Cole Porter got his kicks ?jewish-theatre.com
^ Citron, Stephen. Noel & Cole: the Sophisticates (2005). Hal Leonard Corporation, ISBN 0634093029, p. 142
^ a b Schwartz, Charles
^ You're the Top: The Cole Porter Story, DVD, 1990,
^ "The Boys That Make the Noise", Music section, Time (magazine), 5 July 1943.