The Blues Brothers are an American blues and soul revivalist band founded in 1978 by comedians Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi as part of a musical sketch on Saturday Night Live. Belushi and Aykroyd, respectively in character as lead vocalist "Joliet" Jake Blues and harpist/vocalist Elwood Blues, fronted the band, which was composed of well-known and respected musicians. The band made its debut as the musical guest on the , 1978, episode of Saturday Night Live.
The band began to take on a life beyond the confines of the television screen, releasing an album, Briefcase Full of Blues, in 1978, and then having a Hollywood film, The Blues Brothers, created around its characters in 1980.
After the death of Belushi in 1982, the Blues Brothers have continued to perform with a rotation of guest singers and other band members. The original band reformed in 1988 for a world tour and again in 1998 for a sequel to the film, Blues Brothers 2000. They make regular appearances at musical festivals worldwide.
While not all members appeared in the original film, the full band included:
"Joliet" Jake E. Blues ? vocals
Elwood J. Blues ? harmonica, vocals
Steve "The Colonel" Cropper ? lead and rhythm guitar (former Booker T & the M.G.'s)
Donald "Duck" Dunn ? bass guitar (former Booker T & the M.G.'s)
Murphy Dunne ? keyboards (brought in to act in the film due to Paul Shaffer's commitment to perform with Gilda Radner in Gilda Live!, toured with the band in the summer of 1980)
Willie "Too Big" Hall ? drums, percussion (formerly of the Bar-Kays, Isaac Hayes' band, appears in the movie)
Steve "Getdwa" Jordan ? drums, percussion (Saturday Night Live Band, appears only on the albums)
Birch "Crimson Slide" Johnson - trombone
Tom "Bones" Malone ? trombone, trumpet, saxophone (Saturday Night Live Band)
"Blue" Lou Marini ? saxophone (Saturday Night Live Band)
Matt "Guitar" Murphy ? lead and rhythm guitar (Howlin' Wolf, other artists)
Alan "Mr. Fabulous" Rubin ? trumpet (Saturday Night Live Band)
Paul "The Shiv" Shaffer ? keyboards, arranger
Tom "Triple Scale" Scott ? saxophone (doesn't appear in the movie, though his saxophone can still be heard on the soundtrack)
The band in the 1980 film performs "Jailhouse Rock" in prison, from left, Steve Cropper, Matt Murphy, Elwood Blues, Willy Hall, Duck Dunn, Jake Blues, Bones Malone, Alan Rubin and Blue Lou.
At various times, the following have been part of the act:
Zee Blues ? vocals
"Mighty Mack" McTeer ? vocals
Buster Blues ? harmonica, vocals (acted by J. Evan Bonifant in Blues Brothers 2000, actual harmonica recorded by John Popper)
Cabel "Cab" Chamberlain - vocals
Cab Calloway ? vocals sources
Larry "T" Thurston ? vocals
Eddie "Knock on Wood" Floyd ? vocals
Sam "Soul Man" Moore - vocals
Tommy "Pipes" McDonnell ? harmonica, vocals
Rob "The Honeydripper" Paparozzi ? harmonic vocals
Leon "The Lion" Pendarvis ? piano, vocals, arranger
Danny "G-Force" Gottlieb ? drums
Jimmy "Jimmy B" Biggins ? saxophone
Anthony "Rusty" Cloud ? keyboards
Birch "Crimson Slide" Johnson ? trombone
Eric "The Red" Udel ? bass
John "Smokin" Tropea ? guitar
Lee "Funky Time" Finkelstein ? drums
Steve Potts ? drums
Anton Fig - Drums
Larry "Trombonius Maximus" Farrell ? trombone
Alto Reed - saxophone
Jonny "The Rock & Roll Doctor" Rosch - vocals, harmonica
The genesis of the Blues Brothers was a January 17, 1976, Saturday Night Live skit. In it, "Howard Shore and his All-Bee Band" play the Slim Harpo song "I'm a King Bee," with Belushi singing and Aykroyd playing harmonica, dressed in the bee costumes they wore for the "Killer Bees" sketch.
Following tapings of SNL, it was popular among cast members and the weekly hosts to attend Aykroyd's Holland Tunnel Blues bar, which he had rented not long after joining the cast. Dan and John filled a jukebox with songs from many different artists such as Sam and Dave and punk band The Viletones. John bought an amplifier and they kept some musical instruments there for anyone who wanted to jam. It was here that Dan wrote a lot of the initial story draft of the Blues Brothers movie, better known as the "tome" because it contained so many pages.
It was also at the bar that Aykroyd introduced Belushi to the blues. An interest soon became a fascination and it wasn't long before the two began singing with local blues bands. Jokingly, SNL band leader Howard Shore suggested they call themselves "The Blues Brothers." In an April 1988 interview in the Chicago Sun-Times, Aykroyd said the Blues Brothers act borrowed from Sam & Dave and others?"Well obviously the duo thing and the dancing, but the hats came from John Lee Hooker. The suits came from the concept that when you were a jazz player in the 40's, 50's 60's, to look straight, you had to wear a suit".
The band was also modeled in part on Aykroyd's experience with the Downchild Blues Band, one of the first professional blues bands in Canada, with whom Ackroyd continues to play on occasion. Aykroyd first encountered the band in the early 1970s, at or around the time of his attendance at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada and where his initial interest in the blues developed through attending and occasionally performing at Ottawa's Le Hibou Coffee House. As Aykroyd has said of this time:
So I grew up (in Ottawa), in this capital city. My parents used to work for the government, and I went to elementary school, high school, and the university in the city. And there was a place on Sussex Drive (Sussex Drive is where the Prime Minister?s house is, right below Parliament Hill), and there was a little club there called Le Hibou, which in French means 'the owl'. And it was run by a gentleman named Harvey Glatt, and he brought every, and I mean every blues star that you or I would ever have wanted to have seen through Ottawa in the late 50s, well I guess more late 60s sort of, in around the Newport jazz rediscovery. I was going to Le Hibou and hearing James Cotton, Otis Spann, Pinetop Perkins, and Muddy Waters. I actually jammed behind Muddy Waters. S. P. Leary left the drum kit one night, and Muddy said 'anybody out there play drums? I don?t have a drummer.' And I walked on stage and we started, I don?t know, Little Red Rooster, something. He said 'keep that beat going, you make Muddy feel good.' And I heard Howlin? Wolf (Chester Burnett). Many, many times I saw Howlin? Wolf. And of course Buddy Guy, Buddy Guy and Junior Wells, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee. So I was exposed to all of these players, playing there as part of this scene to service the academic community in Ottawa, a very well-educated community. Had I lived in a different town I don?t think that this would have happened, because it was just the confluence of educated government workers, and then also all the colleges in the area, Ottawa University, Carleton, and all the schools?these people were interested in blues culture.
The Toronto-based Downchild Blues Band, co-founded in 1969 by two brothers, Donnie and Richard "Hock" Walsh, served as an inspiration for the two Blues Brothers characters. Aykroyd initially modeled Elwood Blues in part on Donnie Walsh, a harmonica player and guitarist, while John Belushi's Jake Blues character was modeled in part on Hock Walsh, Downchild's lead singer. In their first album as the Blues Brothers, Briefcase Full of Blues (1978), Aykroyd and Belushi featured three well-known Downchild songs closely associated with Hock Walsh's vocal style: "I've Got Everything I Need (Almost)", written by Donnie Walsh, "Shotgun Blues", co-written by Donnie and Hock Walsh, and "Flip, Flop and Fly", co-written and originally popularized by Big Joe Turner. All three songs were contained in Downchild's second album, Straight Up (1973), with "Flip, Flop and Fly" becoming the band's most successful single, in 1974.
Belushi's budding interest in the blues solidified in October 1977 when he was in Eugene, Oregon, filming National Lampoon's Animal House. He went to a local hotel to hear 25-year-old blues singer/harmonica player Curtis Salgado. After the show, Belushi and Salgado talked about the blues for hours. Belushi found Salgado's enthusiasm infectious. In an interview at the time with the Eugene Register-Guard he said:
I was growing sick of rock and roll, it was starting to bore me...and I hated disco, so I needed some place to go. I hadn't heard much blues before. It felt good.
Salgado lent him some albums by Floyd Dixon, Charles Brown, Johnny "Guitar" Watson, and others. Belushi was hooked.
Belushi began to appear with Salgado on stage, singing the Floyd Dixon song "Hey, Bartender" on a few occasions, and using Salgado's humorous alternate lyrics to "I Don't Know":
I said Woman, you going to walk a mile for a Camel
Or are you going to make like Mr. Chesterfield and satisfy?
She said that all depends on what you're packing
Regular or king-size
Then she pulled out my Jim Beam, and to her surprise
It was every bit as hard as my Canadian Club
These lyrics were used again for the band's debut performance on SNL.
With the help of pianist-arranger Paul Shaffer, Belushi and Aykroyd started assembling a collection of studio talents to form their own band. These included SNL band members, saxophonist "Blue" Lou Marini and trombonist-saxophonist Tom Malone, who had previously played in Blood, Sweat & Tears. At Shaffer's suggestion guitarist Steve Cropper and bassist Donald "Duck" Dunn, the powerhouse combo from Booker T and the M.G.'s and subsequently almost every hit out of Memphis' Stax Records during the 1960s, were signed as well.
Belushi wanted a powerful trumpet player and a hot blues guitarist, so Juilliard-trained trumpeter Alan Rubin was brought in, as was guitarist Matt Murphy, who had performed with many blues legends.
For the brothers' look, Belushi borrowed John Lee Hooker's trademark Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses and soul patch.
Their style was fresh and in many ways, different from prevailing musical trends: A very raw and "live" sound compared to the increasing use of sound synthesis and vocal-dominated music of the late 1970s and 80s.
While the music of the Blues Brothers is based on R&B, blues, and soul, it also drew heavily on rock and jazz elements, usually taking a blues standard and bringing a rock sound and style to it. The band could be drawn into three sections: the four-man horn section, the traditional rock instruments of the five-man rhythm section, and the two singing brothers. The sound of the band was a synthesis of two different traditions: the horn players all came from the clean, precise, jazz-influenced sound of New York City; while the rhythm section came from the grittier soul and blues sound of Chicago and Memphis. The success of this meld was due both to Shaffer's arrangements and to the musicians' talents.
In Stories Behind the Making of The Blues Brothers, a 1998 documentary included on some DVD editions of the first Blues Brothers film, Cropper noted that some of his peers thought that he and the other musicians backing the Blues Brothers were selling out to Hollywood or using a gimmick to make some quick money. Cropper responded by stating that he thought Belushi was as good as (or even better than) many of the singers he had backed; he also noted that Belushi had, early in his career, briefly been a professional drummer, and had an especially keen sense of rhythm.
Albums, early gigs, character backgrounds
The Blues Brothers recorded their first album, Briefcase Full of Blues, in 1978 while opening for comedian Steve Martin at Los Angeles' Universal Amphitheatre. The album reached #1 on the Billboard 200, went double platinum, and featured Top 40 hit recordings of Sam and Dave's "Soul Man" and The Chips' "Rubber Biscuit."
The album liner notes fleshed out the fictional back story of Jake and Elwood, having them growing up in a Roman Catholic orphanage in Calumet City, Illinois and learning the blues from a janitor named Curtis. Their blood brotherhood was sealed by cutting their middle fingers with a string said to come from the guitar of Elmore James.
The band, along with the New Riders of the Purple Sage, opened for the Grateful Dead for the final show at Winterland, New Year's Eve 1978.
With the film, came the soundtrack album, which was the band's first studio album. "Gimme Some Lovin'" was a Top 40 hit and the band toured to promote the film, which led to a third album (and second live album), Made in America, recorded at the Universal Amphitheatre in 1980. The track "Who's Making Love" peaked at No 39. It was the last recording the band would make with Belushi's Jake Blues.
Belushi's wife, Judith Jacklin, and his friend, Tino Insana, wrote a book, Blues Brothers: Private, that further fleshed out the Blues Brothers' universe and gave a back story for the first movie.
In 1981, Best of the Blues Brothers was released, with a previously unreleased track, a version of The Soul Survivors' Expressway To Your Heart, and alternate live recordings of Everybody Needs Somebody To Love and Rubber Biscuit; this album would be the first of several compilations and hits collections issued over the years. A 1998 British CD compilation, The Complete Blues Brothers, exclusively features Lamont Cranston's Excuse Moi Mon Cheri, from the L.A. Briefcase recordings, originally available only as the b-side to the Soul Man 45 rpm single.
On , 1982, John Belushi died in Hollywood of an accidental overdose of heroin and cocaine.
After John Belushi's death, updated versions of the Blues Brothers have performed on SNL and for charitable and political causes. Aykroyd has been accompanied by Jim Belushi and John Goodman in character as "Zee" Blues and "Mighty Mack" McTeer. The copyright owners have also authorized some copycat acts to perform under the Blues Brothers name; one such act performs regularly at the Universal Studios Florida theme park in Orlando, Florida and Universal Studios Hollywood.
In 1997, an animated sitcom with Jake and Elwood was planned, but scrapped after only eight episodes were produced.
To promote Blues Brothers 2000 (1998), Dan Aykroyd, James Belushi and John Goodman performed at the halftime of Super Bowl XXXI, along with ZZ Top and James Brown. The performance was preceded with a faux news report stating the Blues Brothers had escaped custody and were on their way to the Louisiana Superdome.
Aykroyd has continued to be an active proponent of blues music and parlayed this avocation into foundation and partial ownership of the House of Blues franchise, a national chain of nightclubs.
John Belushi's brother, James Belushi, toured with the band for a short time as "Zee Blues," and recorded the album, Blues Brothers & Friends: Live from House of Blues, with Dan Aykroyd but he didn't appear in Blues Brothers 2000. It's rumored he was approached to play not the role of "Mighty Mack" (played by John Goodman), but the role of the local Sheriff "Cab" Chamberlain (which eventually went to Joe Morton). Jim would later reunite with Aykroyd to record yet another album, not as the Blues Brothers but as themselves: Belushi/Aykroyd - Have Love Will Travel (Big Men-Big Music).
In 2004, the musical, The Blues Brothers Revival, premiered in Chicago. The story was about Elwood trying to rescue Jake from an eternity in limbo/purgatory. The musical was written and composed with approval and permission from both the John Belushi estate (including his widow, Judith Belushi-Pisano) and Dan Aykroyd.
The Blues Brothers featuring Elwood and Zee regularly perform at House of Blues venues and various casinos across North America. They are usually backed by James Belushi's Sacred Hearts Band. The rest of the Blues Brothers Band tours the world regularly. The only original members still in the band are Steve Cropper, Lou Marini, and Alan Rubin. The lead singer is Jonny "The Rock & Roll Doctor" Rosch, and they are frequently joined by Eddie Floyd.
Aykroyd currently reprises his character, Elwood Blues, as the host of the weekly House of Blues Radio Hour, heard nationwide on the Dial Global Radio Network.
The Blues Brothers
Main article: The Blues Brothers (film)
In 1980, The Blues Brothers, directed by John Landis, was released. Featuring epic car chases involving the Bluesmobile and musical performances by Aretha Franklin, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles and John Lee Hooker, the story is set in and around Chicago, Illinois. It is a tale of redemption for the paroled convict Jake Blues and his brother Elwood as they decide to take on a "mission from God" and reform their blues band in order to raise funds to save the Catholic orphanage where they grew up. Along the way, the brothers are targeted by a "mystery woman" (Carrie Fisher) and chased by the Illinois State Police, a country and western band called the Good Ol' Boys, and "Illinois Nazis." The film grossed $57 million domestically in its theatrical release, making it the 10th highest grossing movie of 1980, and grossed an additional $58 million in foreign release. It is the second-highest grossing film based on a "Saturday Night Live" sketch and ninth-highest grossing musical film.
Blues Brothers 2000
Main article: Blues Brothers 2000
With Landis again directing, the sequel to The Blues Brothers was made in 1998. It fared considerably worse than its predecessor with fans and critics, though it is more ambitious in terms of musical performances by the band and has a more extensive roster of guest artists than the first film. The story picks up 18 years later with Elwood being released from prison, and learning that his brother has died. He is once again prevailed upon to save some orphans, and with a 10-year-old boy named Buster Blues (J. Evan Bonifant) in tow, Elwood again sets about the task of reuniting his band. He recruits some new singers, Mighty Mack (John Goodman) and Cab (Joe Morton), a policeman who was Curtis' son. All the original band members are found, as well as some performers from the first film, including Aretha Franklin and James Brown. There are dozens of other guest performers, including Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Junior Wells, Lonnie Brooks, Eddie Floyd, Wilson Pickett, Isaac Hayes, Sam Moore, Taj Mahal and Jonny Lang, Blues Traveler, as well as an all-star supergroup led by B.B. King called the Louisiana Gator Boys. On the run from the police, Russian mafia and a racist militia, the band eventually ends up in Louisiana, where they enter a battle of the bands overseen by a voodoo practitioner named Queen Moussette (Erykah Badu). During a song by the Blues Brothers (a Caribbean number called "Funky Nassau"), a character played by Paul Shaffer asks to cut in on keyboards, which Murph allows. This marks the first time in a film that the Blues Brothers play with their original keyboardist.
Main article: The Blues Brothers (video game)
A video game involving the characters was made for various platforms by Titus. The same company produced another video game for the Amiga, Game Boy, PC and Super NES. A Nintendo 64 game titled Blues Brothers 2000 was also released.
The Blues Brothers Bar
The Blues Brothers Bar was an illegal basement tavern operated on Wells Street In Chicago's Old Town in the 1970s and 1980s which was started by John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd. The Bar was down the street from The Second City theater. In the DVD commentary of the film Thief (a film shot in Chicago in 1981), James Caan mentions the bar. The bar was run by a college friend whom Belushi met at College of DuPage, the friend often operated as a bouncer. As the bar was unlicensed, alcohol was bought by the purchase of 'tickets' which were then traded to the bartender for the drinks. The bar was discovered by authorities in 1982 and was forced to close shortly after.
A bar by a similar title was built in Mount Prospect, IL (referenced in the movie as the town where Elwood purchased the car) opened in 2007.
In popular culture
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The 1978 release and success of Briefcase Full Of Blues sparked a renewed interest in the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and jazz, especially in a much younger audience. With two tracks listed in the Top 40, and the unique sound and lyrics of "Rubber Biscuit" a new audience was discovered that was heretofore unfamiliar with the styles. Wayfarer sunglasses, black suits with skinny black ties, and pork pie hats became the dress of choice for many aspiring blues, and rock and roll musicians. The 1980 film "The Blues Bothers" provided a venue for many venerated and renowned acts introducing a willing audience to previously unfamiliar artists.
There have been many takeoffs and parodies of the Blues Brothers, most notably in the Chicago area.
The Whitehall Theatre in London, England, staged A Tribute to the Blues Brothers in 1996. What was originally a six-week run extended into 46 and was staged on and off till 2001. Guest-stars included Antonio Fargas (best known for the part of informant Huggy Bear in Starsky and Hutch) singing Minnie The Moocher.
Films and television
In 1997, UPN ordered thirteen episodes of The Blues Brothers Animated Series. The order was pulled shortly afterward, and only two episodes were fully completed. Peter Aykroyd provided the voice of Elwood and Jim Belushi provided the voice of Jake.
The Blues Brothers is an arcade game released in 1990. It had a sequel in 1993 called The Blues Brothers : The Jukebox Adventure. Both games were edited by Titus and developed by Image Works.
There is also a Blues Brothers 2000 video game available for Nintendo 64.
One of the seasonal musical acts at Disneyland is the Brass Brothers. The band plays R&B music in suits, fedoras, and sunglasses inspired by the Blues Brothers.
Manga-artist Kenichi Sonoda is an avid Blues Brothers fan and has included references to it in many of his works. Most notably, in his manga Gunsmith Cats, which is set in Chicago the main character's car bears the familiar license plate number BDR 529. Also, his early anime Riding Bean, also set in Chicago showed several car chases inspired by the movie, involving massive police car pileups.
In the Terry Pratchett book, Soul Music, Cliff tells Buddy that no-one can stop them because they are on "A Mission from Glod," when they are stealing a piano for their band. Glod is a character in their band "The Band with Rocks In." Further References abound in the novel, including ""Anyone else fancy a hot dog? Hot dog? Hot dog? Right. That's three hot d--", obviously parodied from an attempted purchase of orange whips.
Universal Studios Florida and Universal Studios Hollywood house outdoor show attractions featurng the Blues Brothers (Titled The Blues Brothers Live in Florida, and The Blues Brothers R&B Revue in Hollywood). In the attractions, the Blues Brothers perform classic Rock and Soul songs. There is also a Christmas version of the show in which they sing Holiday classic songs.
Jake and Elwood appear in Kim Newman and Eugene Byrne's alternate history novel Back in the USSA as thrifty musicians/thieves in a post-communist United States.
The Runaway 5 from Earthbound are largely based on the Blues Brothers, especially Lucky and Gorgeous, who dance just like Jake and Elwood. In the original Japanese version of the game (Mother 2), they are called the Tonzura Brothers, and they all dress in black. When the game was localized for North America, the colors of their suits and the name of the band were changed to avoid copyright infringement.